May 2005 Edition

GFCI Information

A “GFCI” is a ground fault circuit inter­rupter. A ground fault circuit interrupter is an inexpensive electrical device that, if installed in household branch circuits, could prevent over two-thirds of the approximately 300 electrocutions still occurring each year in and around the home. Installation of the device could also prevent thousands of burn and electric shock injuries each year.
The GFCI is designed to protect people from severe or fatal electric shocks. Because a GFCI detects ground faults, it can also prevent some electrical fires and reduce the severity of others by interrupting the flow of electric current.


Have you ever experienced an electric shock? If you did, the shock probably happened because your hand or some other part of your body contacted a source of electrical current and your body provided a path for the electrical current to go to the ground, so that you received a shock.
An unintentional electric path between a source of current and a grounded surface is referred to as a “ground-fault.” Ground faults occur when current is leaking somewhere; in effect, electricity is escaping to the ground. How it leaks is very important. If your body provides a path to the ground for this leak­age, you could be injured, burned, severely shocked, or electrocuted.
Circuit breaker and receptacle-type GFCIs may be installed in your home by a qualified electrician. Receptacle-type GFCIs may be installed by knowledgeable consumers familiar with electrical wiring practices who also follow the instructions accompanying the device. When in doubt about the proper procedure, contact a qualified electrician. Do not attempt to install it yourself if not qualified.
TESTING GFCIs           
All GFCIs should be tested once a month to make sure they are working properly and are protecting you from fatal shock.  
GFCIs should be tested after installation to make sure they are working properly and protecting the circuit.


To test the receptacle GFCI, first plug a night light or lamp into the outlet. The light should be on. Then, press the “TEST” button on the GFCI. The GFCI’s “RESET” button should pop out, and the light should go out.           
If the “RESET” button pops out but the light does not go out, the GFCI has been improperly wired. Contact an electrician to correct the wiring errors.           
If the “RESET” button does not pop out, the GFCI is defective and should be replaced.           
If the GFCI is functioning properly, and the lamp goes out, press the “RESET” button to restore power to the outlet. 
HOW THE GFCI WORKS            
In the home’s wiring system, the GFCI constantly monitors electricity flowing in a circuit to sense any loss of current. If the current flowing through the circuit differs by a small amount from that returning, the GFCI quickly switches off power to that circuit. The GFCI interrupts power faster than a blink of an eye to prevent a lethal dose of electricity. You may receive a painful shock, but you should not be elec­trocuted or receive a serious shock injury. 
TYPES OF GFCIs           
Three common types of ground fault circuit interrupters are available for home use:
This type of GFCI is used in place of the standard duplex receptacle found throughout the house. It fits into the standard outlet box and protects you against “ground faults” whenever an electrical product is plugged into the outlet. Most receptacle-type GFCIs can be installed so that they also protect other electri­cal outlets further “down stream” in the branch circuit.
In homes equipped with circuit breakers rather than fuses, a circuit breaker GFCI may be installed in a panel box to give protection to selected circuits. The circuit breaker GFCI serves a dual purpose - not only will it shut off electricity in the event of a “ground-fault,” but it will also trip when a short circuit or an over-load occurs. 
PORTABLE TYPE           
One type of portable GFCI is an extension cord combined with a GFCI. It adds flexibility in using recep­tacles that are not protected by GFCIs. 
n homes built to comply with the National Electrical Code (the Code), GFCI protection is required for most outdoor receptacles (since 1973), bathroom receptacle circuits (since 1975), garage wall outlets (since 1978), kitchen receptacles (since 1987), and all receptacles in crawl spaces and unfinished basements (since 1990).           
Owners of homes that do not have GFCIs installed in all those critical areas specified in the latest version of the Code should consider having them installed. For broad protection, GFCI circuit breakers may be added in many panels of older homes to replace ordinary circuit breakers. For homes protected by fuses, you are limited to recep­tacle or portable-type GFCIs and these may be installed in areas of greatest exposure, such as the bathroom, kitchen, basement, garage, and outdoor circuits. 

Source: US Consumer Product Safety Commission, Publication #99 

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